MEASLES (jerumut)

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MEASLES (jerumut)

Post  mama_faiz on Mon May 25, 2009 4:40 pm

What causes measles?

is caused by the rubeola virus. When someone who has the virus sneezes
or coughs, tiny droplets containing the virus spray into the air. The
droplets stay active for two hours in the air or on a surface. A child
who breathes in these droplets or comes in contact with them can become

If your child isn't immunised
- and hasn't already had the disease - he has a 90 per cent chance of
getting the virus if he's had contact with someone who's infected with
it. It usually takes six to 21 days for a child exposed to the virus to
become ill.

A person with measles is contagious for two to four days before and five days after developing the telltale rash.

What are the symptoms of measles?

If your baby has measles, he'll begin with a fever (high temperature), a runny nose, a cough, and sore, red, swollen eyes.

A few days later, he may develop small white spots in his mouth,
called Koplik's spots, particularly on the mucous membranes that line
his cheeks.

A couple of days later, a measles rash will appear on his face and
neck, and spread down his body. The rash starts out as flat red patches
but eventually develops some bumps. As the rash appears, the fever
usually climbs, sometimes reaching as high as 40.6 degrees C / 105
degrees F. The rash may be itchy.

Your child may feel sick and tired, with aches and pains. His cough may become troublesome, and your child will feel miserable.

The rash usually lasts about five days, and as it fades, it turns a
brownish colour. It will fade in the order it appeared on your child's
body and will leave his skin dry and flaky.

What are the possible complications?

Most otherwise healthy children
recover from measles without problems. In 20 to 30 per cent of measles
cases, an affected child will develop some kind of complication, such
as diarrhoea or an ear infection.

Other less likely but possible difficulties include pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and, very rarely, other serious brain complications.

How should I care for my baby if he has measles?

If you suspect that your baby has
measles, contact your doctor straight away. Measles is a notifiable
disease, which means that a doctor who sees a case of measles has a
legal requirement to report it.

Once the doctor has confirmed that your baby has measles, there's
not much you can do to treat it. Try to make your baby as comfortable
as possible, while his immune system fights off the illness, and keep
him away from other children.

Make sure he gets plenty of rest and fluids, to prevent dehydration caused by the fever.

You can give your baby the proper dose of infant paracetamol for
fever and aches and pains if he is three months old, or infant
ibuprofen if he is at least three months old and weighs 5kg or more.
(If your baby is younger than three months old, check with his doctor
before giving him any medicines, even an over-the-counter pain killer.)

(Never give your child aspirin as it can trigger Reye's syndrome, a very rare but potentially fatal disease.)

There is no evidence to show that cough medicines are of use, but
try placing bowls of warm water in your baby's room to make it more
humid, as this might help to relieve a cough. A toddler or older child
may benefit from a teaspoon of lemon juice and two teaspoons of honey
in a glass of warm water (do not give honey to children under 12 months).

Antibiotics aren't useful for treating measles but may be needed to treat secondary infections such as ear infections.

Can I prevent my baby from developing measles if he's been exposed to the virus?

If your baby hasn't yet received the MMR vaccine but has been exposed to measles, the course of action will depend on his age:

If your baby is younger than six months old and you have had
measles in the past, your antibodies will have passed to your baby in
the uterus and your baby should be immune. If you've never had measles,
your baby may be given an injection of human normal immuniglobin
(HNIG). HNIG is a concentration of antibodies which can give short-term
but immediate protection against measles.

If your baby is older than six months and has been exposed to the
measles virus, he will usually be given a dose of the MMR vaccine
straight away to prevent the virus from developing.

Is there any way to prevent my toddler from coming down with measles?

When your child is 12 months old, he will receive the MMR vaccine as part of his routine immunisations,
which is 90 to 95 per cent effective at protecting a child against
measles, as well as mumps and rubella. A second dose (booster) of the
vaccine when your child is between three and five years old increases
this protection to 99 per cent. For this reason, all countries in the
European Union and the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand recommend
two doses of MMR.

Is the measles vaccine a live vaccine?

The MMR vaccine is what's called a
live-attenuated vaccine, which means it's a live virus that's been
weakened so that it won't cause the disease in your child. Instead, the
virus will replicate in the cells of his body and cause him to produce
an immune response, which should protect him against a real measles
infection when he meets up with one. The vaccine is the best and only
known way to prevent this illness.

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Re: MEASLES (jerumut)

Post  papamuda on Wed Jul 15, 2009 11:22 am

measles ya bukan campak kah?
Affilate Admin

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Re: MEASLES (jerumut)

Post  mama_faiz on Wed Jul 15, 2009 11:49 am

campak ialah chicken pox..

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